INICC Report of Healthcare Associated Infections in 45 Countries

International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) report, data summary of 45 countries for 2013-2018, Adult and Pediatric Units, Device-associated Module


Background: We report the results of INICC surveillance study from 2013 to 2018, in 664 intensive care units (ICUs) in 133 cities, of 45 countries, from Latin-America, Europe, Africa, Eastern-Mediterranean, Southeast-Asia, and Western-Pacific.

Methods: Prospective data from patients hospitalized in ICUs were collected through INICC Surveillance Online System. CDC-NHSN definitions for device-associated healthcare-associated infection (DA-HAI) were applied.

Results: We collected data from 428,847 patients, for an aggregate of 2,815,402 bed-days, 1,468,216 central line (CL)-days, 1,053,330 mechanical ventilator (MV)-days, 1,740,776 urinary catheter (UC)-days. We found 7,785 CL-associated bloodstream infections (CLAB), 12,085 ventilator-associated events (VAE), and 5,509 UC-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI). Pooled DA-HAI rates were 5.91% and 9.01 DA-HAIs/1,000 bed-days. Pooled CLAB rate was 5.30/1,000 CL-days; VAE rate was 11.47/1,000 MV-days, and CAUTI rate was 3.16/1,000 UC-days. P aeruginosa was non-susceptible (NS) to imipenem in 52.72% of cases; to colistin in 10.38%; to ceftazidime in 50%; to ciprofloxacin in 40.28%; and to amikacin in 34.05%. Klebsiella spp was NS to imipenem in 49.16%; to ceftazidime in 78.01%; to ciprofloxacin in 66.26%; and to amikacin in 42.45%. coagulase-negative Staphylococci and S aureus were NS to oxacillin in 91.44% and 56.03%, respectively. Enterococcus spp was NS to vancomycin in 42.31% of the cases.

Conclusions: DA-HAI rates and bacterial resistance are high and continuous efforts are needed to reduce them.


Rosenthal VD, Duszynska W, Ider BE, Gurskis V, Al-Ruzzieh MA, Myatra SN, Gupta D, Belkebir S, Upadhyay N, Zand F, Todi SK, Kharbanda M, Nair PK, Mishra S, Chaparro G, Mehta Y, Zala D, Janc J, Aguirre-Avalos G, Aguilar-De-Morós D, Hernandez-Chena BE, Gün E, Oztoprak-Cuvalci N, Yildizdas D, Abdelhalim MM, Ozturk-Deniz SS, Gan CS, Hung NV, Joudi H, Omar AA, Gikas A, El-Kholy AA, Barkat A, Koirala A, Cerero-Gudiño A, Bouziri A, Gomez-Nieto K, Fisher D, Medeiros EA, Salgado-Yepez E, Horhat F, Agha HMM, Vimercati JC, Villanueva V, Jayatilleke K, Nguyet LTT, Raka L, Miranda-Novales MG, Petrov MM, Apisarnthanarak A, Tayyab N, Elahi N, Mejia N, Morfin-Otero R, Al-Khawaja S, Anguseva T, Gupta U, Belskii VA, Mat WRW, Chapeta-Parada EG, Guanche-Garcell H, Barahona-Guzmán N, Mathew A, Raja K, Pattnaik SK, Pandya N, Poojary AA, Chawla R, Mahfouz T, Kanj SS, Mioljevic V, Hlinkova S, Mrazova M, Al-Abdely HM, Guclu E, Ozgultekin A, Baytas V, Tekin R, Yalçın AN, Erben N. International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) report, data summary of 45 countries for 2013-2018, Adult and Pediatric Units, Device-associated Module. Am J Infect Control. 2021 Oct;49(10):1267-1274. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2021.04.077. Epub 2021 Apr 24. PMID: 33901588.

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